Proteostasis alterations are proposed as a transversal hallmark of several pathological conditions, including metabolic disorders, mechanical injury, cardiac malfunction, neurodegeneration, and cancer. Strategies to improve proteostasis aim to reduce the accumulation of specific disease-related misfolded proteins or bolster the endogenous mechanisms to fold and degrade abnormal proteins. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a common pathological signature of a variety of diseases, which engages the unfolded protein response (UPR) as a cellular reaction to mitigate ER stress. Pharmacological modulation of the UPR is challenging considering the physiological importance of the pathway in various organs. However, local targeting of ER stress responses in the affected tissue using gene therapy is emerging as a possible solution to overcome side effects. The delivery of ER chaperones or active UPR components using adeno-associated virus (AAV) has demonstrated outstanding beneficial effects in several disease models (e.g., neurodegenerative conditions, eye disorders, and metabolic diseases). Here, we discuss current efforts to design and optimize gene therapy strategies to improve ER proteostasis in different disease contexts.