Two key proteins for cellular communication between astrocytes and neurons are Î±vÎ²3 integrin and the receptor Thy-1. Binding of these molecules in the same (cis) or on adjacent (trans) cellular membranes induces Thy-1 clustering, triggering actin cytoskeleton remodeling. Molecular events that could explain how the Thy-1-Î±vÎ²3 integrin interaction signals have only been studied separately in different cell types, and the detailed transcellular communication and signal transduction pathways involved in neuronal cytoskeleton remodeling remain unresolved. Using biochemical and genetic approaches, single-molecule tracking, and high-resolution nanoscopy, we provide evidence that upon binding to Î±vÎ²3 integrin, Thy-1 mobility decreased while Thy-1 nanocluster size increased. This occurred concomitantly with inactivation and exclusion of the non-receptor tyrosine kinase Src from the Thy-1/C-terminal Src kinase (Csk)-binding protein (CBP)/Csk complex. The Src inactivation decreased the p190Rho GTPase activating protein phosphorylation, promoting RhoA activation, cofilin, and myosin light chain II phosphorylation and, consequently, neurite shortening. Finally, silencing the adaptor CBP demonstrated that this protein was a key transducer in the Thy-1 signaling cascade. In conclusion, these data support the hypothesis that the Thy-1-CBP-Csk-Src-RhoA-ROCK axis transmitted signals from astrocytic integrin-engaged Thy-1 (trans) to the neuronal actin cytoskeleton. Importantly, the Î²3 integrin in neurons (cis) was not found to be crucial for neurite shortening. This is the first study to detail the signaling pathway triggered by Î±vÎ²3, the endogenous Thy-1 ligand, highlighting the role of membrane-bound integrins as trans acting ligands in astrocyte-neuron communication.