BNI originates after a ten-year process of collaborative work with associative research projects, where scientists who were part of the millennium nucleus Center for Integrated Neurosciences (CENI) and then the nucleus of neural morphogenesis (NEMO), joined forces to apply to a millennium institute when the call for proposal was opened. In the proposal, the trajectory of the group and individual research made them stand out and thus, it was awarded the funds to form the Biomedical Neuroscience Institute in 2011.

In Chile, there is an important tradition in neurosciences, so this group saw the opportunity to take charge of this history that had been forged years ago. Gathering a critical mass of basic and clinical neuroscientists, in addition to mathematicians from the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Chile, the task of conducting first-class scientific research,training new researchers, contributing to technology and education, as well as build an active community and an internationally recognized critical mass of researchers.

Today, it has 17 laboratories, more than 40 high-impact annual publications, international networks of scientific collaboration consolidated with the northern hemisphere and Latin America, organization of courses and scientific meetings, which identifies BNI as a unique center in Chile and a reference center in the region.