Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a rare hereditary stroke disorder caused by mutations in the NOTCH3 gene. We report the first Chilean CADASIL family with complete radiological and histological studies.
The family tree was constructed from an autopsy-confirmed confirmed patient, and includes 3 generations. We performed clinical, pathologic, genetic, and radiologic examinations on members of a family with CADASIL.
In the second generation, findings compatible with CADASIL were identified in 6 individuals, all of whom had a missense mutation in exon 3 (c.268C>T) resulting in an arginine to cysteine amino acid substitution at position 90 (R90C). In the third generation, a missense mutation was detected in one of the 4 asymptomatic individuals.
There are similarities in clinical presentation between this family and previously described Asian and European series with R90C mutations. Detecting genotypes with a gain or loss of cysteine residues opens the door to future gene transfection-based therapies.